January Design Challenge Winners

January 29, 2021 By Amy Green

One of our first thoughts when we played Animal Crossing: New Horizons was, “This game sure requires players to use a ton of buttons, but I bet it could be a one-button game.” 

Animal Crossing Characters

We had already been thinking about our own one-button game, but Animal Crossing made us wonder why games so often equate “more buttons”  with “more fun.” Do we humans really receive more joy from our play experiences when we are able to showcase our ability to remember the special functions of multiple buttons? Or could all of these complicated games but just as fun if their inputs were simplified? 

And even if we derive some measured amount of enjoyment from conquering the complexity, is that enjoyment worth excluding others from the experience for? Yes, these are the kind of things we think about while gathering apples, or fishing, or decorating houses in Animal Crossing. We’re a barrel of laughs, I know. But, our thoughts along these lines eventually inspired our monthly design challenges where we invite people to re-think the games they love and show us what it would take to make those games, or specific mechanics within them, a one-button experience.

In January’s challenge, we specifically asked players to show us how they could make decorating in Animal Crossing a one-button mechanic.

If you’ve never had the pleasure of building yourself an extravagant house and furnishing it with as much stuff as you can acquire, all while trying to work off your soul-crushing debt to Tom Nook, well, first, we’re sorry you’ve missed out on this capitalist cautionary tale, or this opportunity to be the star of your own animated American Dream, depending on your current philosophical leanings…. But also, here’s a quick video we made that shows you how decorating currently works within Animal Crossing.


So, how did the entries we received simplify the process of decorating in Animal Crossing and make it accessible to players who can only press a single button? Let’s find out!

Ian Hamilton’s entry solved the problem pretty simply and was recognized as this month’s honorable mention:

“Nested scan & select, cycling between each wall, the floor, and cancel, then elements or locations within that.

For placing, scan between objects to place, then choose a location as above, then cycle between grid squares within that location. Then ok/cancel/rotate – rotate sets the object rotating through directions, on the same scanning speed.

For editing, choose a location as above, then cycle between objects in that location. Cycle between rotate, move, remove. Rotate as above. For move, cycle between available grid locations.”

And we have to say, the fact that you can remove a whole slew of buttons and include thousands of extra players with just five sentences of design thinking is pretty impressive! 

These are not insurmountable design puzzles; they’re just a matter of consideration. As an industry, we aren’t excluding people from games because it’s too hard to include them. Ultimately, we’re excluding people because we don’t care enough. And a simple entry like this really brings that shortcoming to light.

Here’s the feedback our Playability Initiative designers had for Ian’s design:

Mike from Numinous Games

Mike Perrotto said, “Scanning is a great way to go, and I think being a bit more precise when scanning is important to help expedite the player finding what they want to select. Scanning the entire room could take a long time if the placement the player wants is near the end of the list. I would recommend keeping the scanning within close proximity to the player to help make the process more rapid and keep the player engaged.“

Ryan of Numinous Games

Ryan Green added, “This is a solid solution for total control over an area. The main risk is that doing even simple decorations could take a long time in the event that there are multiple spots on the floor or wall. Starting with a suggested spot on the wall could speed up the process.”

This month’s winning design came from Matthew Colon. Matthew has entered all three of our design contests so far. He has been our honorable mention twice, and in January, his winning design earned him a shiny new steam gift card in the amount of $20. (Just imagine all the buttons he’ll be pushing and all the joy he’ll derive from proving he can!) 

We are always impressed with how Matthew’s designs get to the heart of the solution quickly and with a really elegant creativity that not only allows access but really optimizes the player’s experience.

Here’s Matthew’s entry:

I’ll define “cycle-based menu” to represent iterating a cursor of sorts over a small discrete number of selectable options at a speed configurable in a game menu in which the cursor returns to the first item after reaching the last. This will be the method of navigating through options with a single button. When I say below that the player selects an option, it’s under the assumption that a cycle-based menu is being used.

Here’s what Matthew wrote up for the January design challenge:

“I’ll define “cycle-based menu” to represent iterating a cursor of sorts over a small discrete number of selectable options at a speed configurable in a game menu in which the cursor returns to the first item after reaching the last. This will be the method of navigating through options with a single button. When I say below that the player selects an option, it’s under the assumption that a cycle-based menu is being used.

Here’s my entry:

Let’s start with the player character in the room having furniture and items in their inventory that they want to place. They will have around them in Animal Crossing style a cycle-based menu with the following options:

– Inventory (select items to place)

– Shuffle (randomize the placement of items already in the room)

– Decorate (interact with individual items in the room)

– Photo Shoot (has the camera pan over the room at different angles for a short time where the player can take pictures)

– Done (finish decorating and return to some other part of the game)

The player starts by selecting “Inventory,” which opens their Animal Crossing-esque inventory and a cursor iterates through the items in their inventory and a “Done” option. If the player pushes the button while the cursor is on an item, the item is toggled to be selected/unselected in regards to adding it to the room. When the player pushes the button while the cursor is on “Done,” it will playfully toss all selected items randomly throughout the room so there’s a starting arrangement, and the player will return to the “Inventory/Shuffle/Decorate/Photo Shoot/Done” cycle-based menu. If they don’t like the initial random arrangement, they could select “Shuffle” as many times as they like to randomize the arrangement. For some players, the results of shuffling might be sufficient for what they want, and they can select “Done” to finish decorating and do something else in the game.

Once the starting arrangement is satisfactory, now it’s time to select “Decorate” to personalize the space. A cursor will appear that iterates through pointing at each item in the room and a “Done” option. Selecting one of the items will put a cycle-based menu around the item with the following:

– Move

– Rotate

– Pick Up

– Done

Selecting “Move” will replace the cycle-based menu with an arrow that cycles through pointing up, right, down, left, and a “Done” option. Pressing the button will move the item in the direction shown. If “Done” is selected, they return to the “Move/Rotate/Pick Up/Done” cycle-based menu.

Selecting “Rotate” will replace the cycle-based menu with a curved arrow that cycles between pointing clockwise, pointing counter-clockwise, and a “Done” option. Pressing the button will rotate the item in the direction shown. If “Done” is selected, they return to the “Move/Rotate/Pick Up/Done” cycle-based menu.

Selecting “Pick Up” will bring up another cycle-based menu asking if the player is sure they want to pick up the item from the room, showing “Yes” and “No” options. If they select “Yes,” the item is removed from the room and added back into their inventory, and if they select “No” they return to the “Move/Rotate/Pick Up/Done” cycle-based menu.

The player can continue to work with the various cycle-based menus to select items to move and rotate them until they have their room just how they want it. At that point, they can choose the “Photo Shoot” option to have a fancy pass through their room at different angles to view their creative design (here’s an example of the photo shoot style from Animal Crossing: Happy Home Designer: https://youtu.be/DCk2Cgdzp-8?t=949). If the player pushes the button during this time, it will take a picture that they can view elsewhere in the game. After the photo shoot ends, control returns to the player and they see the “Inventory/Shuffle/Decorate/Photo Shoot/Done” cycle-based menu again.

At this point, the player could select “Done” to return to the rest of the game, “Decorate” again to refine their design, “Shuffle” to throw it all up in the air again, or “Inventory” to add items to the room (new items are randomly tossed in but the existing items stay where they are.)”

Mike from Numinous Games

When Mike Perrotto from the Playability Initiative reviewed this entry, he said, “I really like the idea of the “shuffle” when placing items. For some players, they want to decorate but don’t mind as much where everything goes, and sometimes it’s easier to start decorating with options already presented to you instead of having a clean slate. Some players really enjoy the clean slate approach. This option would support both types of players.” Ryan Green agreed, “With cycle-based-menus, it’s good to look for opportunities for automation. It doesn’t necessarily reduce the player’s agency; it reduces the energy and effort needed to create something nice. The “shuffle” is a very welcome automation option. It would create a really nice starting state with only a few taps.”

Mike went on to say, “I like the rotation options, and I’d encourage a test on whether both directions are necessary. Maybe only one direction to limit choice, and then the player can quickly rotate multiple times to their desired rotation. Moving objects in proximity to the player seems to give the player the most agency. Incrementally moving across the screen could provide playful experiences (additional dialog, sound effects, or animations) and keep the player engaged. Prompting the player, especially during destructive activities (like removing objects from the room), is very welcome in a scanning system. There is always the chance the player can make a mistake. I would even suggest an undo option. I love the idea of a camera mode while decorating. Being able to take quick snaps of different designs could be very helpful.  My only question now is how do I see the photos I’ve taken while in this mode?” 🙂

Overall, we love that Matthew’s design not only solved the problem, but it also focused on optimizing the experience for the one-button player. Well done, Matthew!


We’ll be posting our February One-button Design Challenge on Friday, February 5th.

If you’d like to participate, make sure you’re a member of our Playability Initiative Facebook Group. We can’t wait to see your creative designs!


Our Favorite Moments of Disability Representation in Pop Culture

January 25, 2021 By Amy Green

Most people who care about accessibility care because issues of accessibility impact their own lives or the lives of people close to them. I never thought a lot about handicapped parking until my friend was paralyzed in a car accident. Suddenly, I found myself noticing accessibility issues that had seemed invisible to me before. 

Unfortunately, if it takes us caring about someone with an accessibility need to begin to care about accessibility issues, the world will be very slow to change. We can’t possibly introduce every person in the world to someone with a disability.* 

Fortunately, television, movies, and games help all of us care about each other in new ways, as writers introduce us to diverse “friends” whose needs begin to matter to us. Popular culture is a powerful tool for changing the way our society views underrepresented populations. We’ve seen television shows change the public sentiment on working moms, interracial couples, LGBTQ+ rights, and many other topics that were once considered taboo. Media is a powerful force for exposing everyone to the needs of people who aren’t exactly like them.

While we haven’t seen a huge push to normalize disability in the mainstream media, we do have a few favorite moments when disability representation was done well – moments we think could lead to a new awareness of accessibility for people who might not be exposed to it otherwise. We’ll share our favorites, but we’d also love to hear yours.  Head over to The Playability Initiative Facebook Group to continue the conversation.

And if you think one of our favorites needs to be reconsidered, we’d love to hear from you as well. Our definition of good representation could be flawed, and we want to learn from the community what issues we should be aware of.


Biden’s Acceptance Speech – A Favorite of Ryan Green’s

We recently watched the documentary Crip Camp, which follows the story of filmmaker James LeBrecht and his contemporaries and how hard those with disabilities had to fight for the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, a law that prohibits discrimination and provides for equal access for those with disabilities in public life. It opened my eyes to an entire civil rights movement I hadn’t heard about before. So I was encouraged by President Biden’s speech on election night and his acknowledgment of the disabled community. My wife and I both teared up when we heard President Biden include disability in his speech, saying, “We must make the promise of the country real for everybody, no matter their race, their ethnicity, their faith, their identity, or their disability.” 

Joe Biden accepts the nomination for President of the United States, November 7, 2020


Steve Spohn, activist and COO of AbleGamers posted this shortly after… https://twitter.com/stevenspohn/status/1325280639315226624

Another sign of this administration’s commitment to accessibility was highlighted last week when they relaunched the Whitehouse website with new accessibility features on the president’s first day in office. This administration’s posture towards accessibility is just one more example of how advocacy and personal connection with issues of access, breeds compassion.


A Quiet Place – A Favorite of Amy Green’s

The representation of deaf culture in this movie is not perfect. They get some details wrong or change the details for the sake of drama. (They have a cochlear impact ring with feedback in a way that only hearing aids would.) They caption the silent parts of the film and then remove the captions for the spoken words, an accessibility issue for the deaf community wanting to enjoy the film they are represented in. However, setting aside everything that could be improved, I still loved seeing a movie where a family who learned to sign to communicate with their deaf child benefited from this “superpower” in a post-apocalyptic world. Just seeing a family whose life is improved because of their child with a disability is a huge win. My son with disabilities added so much joy and love to our family. I always wanted people to know that despite the challenges, he made everything better, not worse. The concept of disability improving a family comes through beautifully in this film. I’ve also caused my son’s hearing aids to feedback painfully so many times, that even this “inaccurate” moment in the film made me smile because it felt like a nod to something I understood in a way only a parent of a deaf child could. 

Scene from A Quiet Place


Speechless – A Favorite of Amy Green’s

Our family loves speechless! We love how accurately it describes life with a disability. Speechless pulls no punches when it portrays how annoying it is to constantly be celebrated for all the obstacles you’re overcoming, how hard you have to advocate for what you need, and how wonderful it feels to finally be seen as a legitimate member of your community, not just the “token special needs person.” In a time when only 2% of television characters were presented with disabilities, the choice to feature Micah Fowler, an actor with cerebral palsy, as the star of a sit-com was a bold step forward for representation. The story centers around Micah’s character, J.J. Dimeo, whose CP is the primary focus of this hilarious television show. While it has been canceled on network television, you can still stream it on Hulu.

The family from the TV Show, Speechless


President’s Choice Ad (Canada) – A Favorite of Katie Postma’s

One of the best things about accessibility awareness is how easily it becomes part of the ‘norm.’ When true equity occurs, you can find examples of every size, shape, and character in popular culture. I was recently (and happily) surprised when I realized an ad I had seen dozens of times has a gentleman in it with artificial legs. I was happy about it for two reasons: first, I was very glad they put someone with accessibility needs into a rather mainstream ad that millions of people would see. Second, I realized they did it so seamlessly and effortlessly that I didn’t notice it for weeks. When speaking to Amy about this, I tried to find the ad… in a PR piece, on YouTube, even on the company website. After weeks of searching for it, it finally showed up on “AmpuTO TV”, a Toronto-based channel that promotes representation for the limb loss and limb different community.

You can watch the President’s Choice ad, here on YouTube.

So I don’t feel it’s a publicity stunt, nor is it being used to promote their image as an “inclusive company.”. I imagine it’s simply an actor who auditioned for the role of “husband and father sitting in a living room” and got the part. It warmed my heart, and I immediately went out and supported the ad by purchasing the product. Kudos to President’s Choice Decadent Cookie Pie ad and all those behind it!


*Although I think that would be a fantastic initiative in higher education. Spend one week shadowing a disabled person before you graduate with a degree of any kind because no matter where you work, your choices will impact people who have different needs than you. And someone should fund this imaginary program because it’s not that person’s job to educate you, so they should be paid for their time. But, I digress…

Games that Give Us Hope

January 14, 2021 By Amy Green

One of our favorite conversations this year in the Playability Initiative Facebook group was a rousing discussion about which video game, released in 2020, gives us the most hope for overall game accessibility in the future.  We all agreed that there have been some really positive changes across the industry, with lots to celebrate and plenty of work still to be done.

We wanted to recap that conversation here for everyone who missed it and invite you to chime in with your own thoughts if you weren’t part of that original conversation.

Last of Us II screenshot depicting high contrast mode

It will come as no surprise that “Last of Us 2” was brought up early in the conversation. When Katie Postma mentioned The Last of Us 2 as the game that gives her the most hope for accessible games in the future, she said it “feels obvious but more than the game having improved options, I feel like it got a lot of great press and recognition.” And it’s true, thinking back, when has the industry been so quick to celebrate accessibility before? It’s hard to imagine a game getting this same kind of press and attention for its accessibility features five years ago, not just because games weren’t as focused on inclusivity but also because the industry wasn’t as focused on celebrating accessibility. We hope the press around this title will inspire more game studios to think of accessibility earlier in their process. Kelly Paradise pointed out that, “It won a game award for accessibility too, which brought some nice attention to it.”

Antonio Ignacio Martínez also mentioned this title, while reminding us it was one of many to celebrate this year, saying, “I think there isn’t one title that I can name only. The Last of Us Part 2 was a game-changer in blind and low vision accessibility, but it was the number of games (both indie and AAA) that embraced accessibility in different ways that really gave me hope. Even titles released previously kept adding options to be more accessible.”

Pickmin 3 Deluxe Screenshot

Anthony DeVirglio chose “Pikmin 3 Deluxe because Nintendo made motion controls optional.” and Kelly Paradise jumped into the Nintendo discussion, saying, “Nintendo finally allowing controller mapping is HUGE.” This brought up a more nuanced discussion of how system-wide remapping may have a dampening effect on accessibility on an individual game level since developers may decide that players already have sufficient system level mapping options. Control mapping is a good start to game accessibility, however games still need to bake broader accessible thinking into their design process. But wherever you land on this argument, just seeing Nintendo mentioned positively in an accessibility conversation is a surprising and welcome development.

Lair of the Clockwork God Accessibility Options

Ian Hamilton rounded out the conversation by drawing our attention to a game that showed how far accessibility has come. “Lair Of The Clockwork God. Not the most extensive efforts of 2020, but just a couple of years ago, it would have completely blown the industry away. And it took an afternoon, ‘probably less time than was spent choosing the colour of the options menu’ – 

“That I think more than anything else this year shows the trajectory that things are moving along – yesterday’s industry-shaking is today’s trivial effort. Nice to try extrapolating that further to how things will be in a couple of years’ time.”

Concept Art scene from Painted Waters by Numinous Games

While 2020 didn’t leave us hopeful about much, we have to agree that it gave us lots of optimism where accessible video games are concerned. We hope Painted Waters will be an accessible title that people can celebrate by this time next year. In the meantime, let us know what video games released in 2020 gave you the most hope for the future of accessibility in video games! Join us in our accessibility conversations in our Facebook group.


December Design Challenge – Winner Announced!

January 6, 2021 By Amy Green

For our December design challenge, we asked members of the Playability Initiative to tell us how they would adapt the gameplay in Genshin Impact’s combat system to create a one-button mechanic.

We weren’t sure how much engagement we’d get this month with the holidays looming and people busy with their end of the year activities. Boy were we wrong. The submissions we received really impressed us and made us so thankful that we have such an incredible community of creative people who care about accessibility. 

In this blog, we’ll share with you all four entries along with the feedback and critique from two of our Playability Initiative game developers, Brock Henderson and Hayden Scott-Baron. 


Patrick Shaw submitted a design that offered some really compelling innovations. Patrick told us. “I would go with a “action-wedge” UI. A circular progress bar moves around a radial menu, highlighting different wedges, each of which represents a different choice. The player press the “one-button” when the desired choice is highlighted.” Here’s his write up:


Genshin Impact is a polarizing game.  Yet, beyond preference for this specific title, action games such as Genshin are not particularly accessible.  And creating a “one button” interface for a combat system goes a long way to increase the accessibility of action games to more players.  A solid design for such a system can be applied to many similar action oriented games.  To address this design challenge I propose an “action-wedge” UI.  A circular progress bar moves around a radial menu, highlighting different wedges, each of which represents a different choice.  The player presses the “one-button” when the desired choice is highlighted.   

Action-Wedge UI In-Depth

In this new system, combat becomes a new game “mode” that activates when you are close to enemies.  

During combat mode, the “normal” control scheme is suspended, and a circular UI appears on the bottom of the screen.   The circle is divided into “action-wedges,” one for each current action.  So there would be an action-wedge for normal attack, special attack, etc.  Each action-wedge uses both an icon and a large text to indicate its purpose.  A circular progress bar moves around the wheel, highlighting the different action-wedge. When an action-wedge is highlighted by the progress bar, the wedge changes color, size, and plays a sound.  Also, a detailed description of the currently selected action appears in the left corner of the screen.  Pressing the “One Button” selects that action-wedge and executes the action.  

The progress bar always repeats moves around the option-wedges during combat.   If you miss a wedge or need more time to consider your options, then wait for a moment.  The progress bar’s speed is adjustable in the game options to accommodate the player’s taste and ability.  

Some actions require multiple steps.  For example, ranged characters can “charge up” to release an attack.  For multiple-step actions, a new wheel appears for each step.  So for charge attacks, first select the “charge” action-wedge.  You would then be presented with a new menu with the choice to “attack” (e.g., fire the arrow)  or “cancel” (go back to the previous menu).

While in combat, the AI automatically moves your character on the battlefield.  Automatic movement allows you to focus on the most effective, meaningful combat options.  The “wheel” would include option-wedges actions to adjust the player’s position relative to the enemy (e.g., move back, close in, etc.). Similarly, AI positions the camera to get the best view of the action without adjusting the camera manually.   

If all of your enemies are defeated, or you choose the “flee” wedge option, combat mode ends, and standard controls resume.  

Open questions

Should the enemy AI wait while you’re making choices?  Turned-based combat may not mesh well with the rest of the experience.  Yet, having the enemy wait relieves the pressure of possibly getting attacked while waiting for a specific action-wedge to appear.  

Where on the screen should the wheel go?  Strong cases can be made for both near the screen center and the screen bottom.  I have gone with the bottom to give a better view of the game screen.  Yet, I don’t feel convinced.  

Our developer, Brock Henderson, really appreciated that Shaw took speed considerations into account, and had this to say about the design, 

Brock from Numinous Games

“Automatic movement is a good way to keep the speed of combat. Giving players the option to fine-tune their positions is important for larger enemy battles. However, in most of the battles I would imagine not needing those options and simply focusing on switching between elements and timing your attacks.”

Hayden Scott-Baron, a designer for the Playability Initiative added, 

Image of Hayden from Numinous Games

Using a stacked radial menu would be an effective way to manage increasingly complex battle scenarios. Nesting extra options also becomes possible so long as every line of action can be cancelled back to the root.

“Managing the speed of the progress bar could be difficult if the number of options varies, or if ‘wedges’ change location around the circle. There don’t appear to be many examples of radial menus in existing one-button interfaces, such as iPhone and Android Switch Access, perhaps because of the timing disconnect for individual choices.”

This entry also gets a couple shout outs in the critique of our winning entry, coming up next.



Our winning entry was submitted by Amaury Français, who told us, “the fact that you cannot use hold for the button is super challenging.” We think he came up with an excellent design, and here it is!

Genshin Impact Logo

1) Definitions

Our goal is to make a version of combat as close as possible to the existing combat mechanics of Genshin Impact with only one button.

Here are the rules around that button as gathered from the test:

  1. It is one button with only two states : pressed or not pressed
  2. The “pressed” state cannot be continuous (we cannot expect the player to hold the button)
  3. The button cannot move in any direction
  4. It could work on a touch screen but cannot require pressing different zones (it is only one button)

2) The Genshin Impact Combat System

Genshin Impact Combat

The Genshin Impact combat is, judging from the video, a fairly standard Action RPG combat system. We have, as the things the player can do :

  1. A four dimensional basic movement [left stick]
  2. A camera movement [right stick]
  3. A jump that seems to impact the combat very little (unless there is some sky attacks unseen in the video) [Cross]
  4. An ability to slide/sprint [R1]
  5. A basic attack that can be chained a specific amount of times [Circle]
  6. A special attack whose effect depends on the character [R2]
  7. A super special attack whose effect also depends on the character [Triangle]
  8. For ranged attacks, a button to move into “targeting mode” that transform the camera movement into a targeting movement.

Here are the main important gameplay elements taken from the video:

  1. Movement is crucial to avoid attacks or gain distance from the enemy : There is an element of positioning important to avoid being attacked.
  2. The three different types of attacks are gated behind cooldowns : 
    1. No cooldown for the basic attack
    2. Medium cooldown for the special
    3. Very big cooldown (or another mechanic to fill a gauge, not sure) for the super special.
  3. In ranged combat, there is an element of precision and of assessing the time needed to target versus the time needed for the opponents to reach you and attack you
  4. In both combat, there is an element of positioning for the specials that are affecting zones.
  5. Enemy attacks can sometimes be zones that are pre indicated in red, requiring quick response from the player to avoid those zones.

Overall, for a player’s perspective, the gameplay requires :

  1. Strategic positioning between avoiding attacks and optimizing the effectiveness of the specials
  2. Skill check between reflexes for avoiding attacks and precision targeting with ranged attacks
  3. A frenzy of continuous inputs (there is no dead times as bashing the standard attack fills up the time when waiting to fire the specials).

We’ll try to keep those considerations as much as possible for the design of the one-button combat.

3) Considerations of the possibilities of a single button design

Because we cannot use an alternation between short, long presses or holds, we need to realize there are only two elements we can play around: Number of presses and timing.

  1. Number of presses is quite limited here, and more especially, could be challenging if the presses require a muscle that is not used to very fast repetitive pressing. Even standard fingers would find it tiring pretty fast to require 5 extra fast pressings to do an action repeatedly.
  2. Timing, on the other hand, is a very versatile tool: We can ask players to press buttons at a specific time, or we can also give a sliding bar of different options the player can choose from, and the way to select would be to wait until the selector hits your choice.

4) Conclusion on the design we want to achieve

Let’s see how we could apply our three main gameplay points we’ve taken from the Genshin combat system with a single button design based on timing and waiting to do specific actions.

  1. Strategic positioning

This is quite challenging, as a standard 4 directional movement system offers a very wide array of directions to choose. But it is also a very central component of the game we would like to keep.

We can keep a positioning element by allowing the player to move to predetermined locations.

Genshin Impact 1-Button Combat

In this situation, the player only has two options for movements : moving left or moving right.

2. Skill checks

Thankfully for us, this is the easiest : A timing based combat system will already require a great control of timing, and considerations of time needed to choose an option versus the time needed for the opponent to attack you also requires thinking and skill. We can even introduce a ranged combat mechanic where the player’s target moves between different zones, and the player needs to press the button at the right time. No need to worry about that one.

2. A frenzy of continuous inputs

We may be able to recreate a button mashing sensation with the standard attack by having it require no waiting time. This would be the most basic action, and we could press the button repeatedly until we want to do something else.

5) Design proposition

1. The “Timing Bar” as an option selector.

Our one button design would show a bar that would allow the player to wait sufficient time to select the action they want to do.

Genshin Impact possible timing bar

The yellow selector moves along the bar at a specific speed. As long as the arrow is on a zone, pressing the button accomplishes the action of that zone. If the arrow reaches the end of the bar it automatically comes back to the beginning, and repeats that process until the player decides to do an action.

Once the player chooses to do an action, that action is executed and the selector goes back to the beginning of the options bar.

The “Special” and “Super Special” cooldowns or gauge charges are visible as the icons on the bar so that the player knows if they can select them or not.

The first action is the basic attack as it is the action that requires the most button mashing. A player can easily select that option multiple times in a row with this selector system.

The Move left and right actions are then next as they require the highest level of quick reaction from the player to execute. Then, the last three actions are not used that often so they are relegated to the end of the bar, in order of expected usages in a combat session.

2. The enemies movement and positioning.

Genshin Impact 1-Button Combat

As seen in our chapter 3 ( Image repeated here), the player would move between pre selected zones.

The orientation of the player should always be towards the main enemy, so whatever direction you choose to move to, the camera would be focusing the enemy or enemies. There is also the possibility of adding more steps, as long as the options stay Left or Right (and therefore form a continuous polygon). See this example having two enemies :

Genshin Impact - 1 Button Design with 2 Enemies

The color of the square indicates which enemy you’re facing if you stand on that spot. You can create situations where, for example, Enemy Blob 1 will set fire on all the spots of his color in 10 seconds, so the player needs to move out of its zone, but can focus on the Enemy Blob 2 during that time.

The goal is to offer meaningful decisions similar to the standard Genshin Impact Combat, such as :

  1. Enemies preparing zone attacks that touch multiple squares, forcing the player to move to evade those.
  2. Enemies attacking specific squares that the player want to avoid temporarily.
  3. Special attacks dealing more damage to specific sides of the enemies. An enemy would only face you once you attack them, giving you the interesting decision of moving first around the enemy and then unleashing your special for maximum effect.

3. Potential alternative options based on character class/Game style.

We can recreate the feeling of different gameplay pace between the ranged and close combat characters by creating alternative ways of moving/attacking.

If our current design so far would be made for the swordsman, next chapter is how we would design the ranged class.

6) Ranged Class Design

Here is the options selector bar for the Ranged class:

Genshin Impact possible timing bar for ranged attacks

Here are the new and different options and their behaviour:

1. Attack Targeting:

The attack targeting is a simple target moving between different enemies or zones of the screen. The player would have to press at the right moment. The movement can also be non continuous (acceleration in the center) to create a more difficult targeting experience.

2. Dodge:

The dodge would be a quick movement behind to avoid approaching enemies. 

If the map is limited in space for the duration of combat, you can only select this option for a certain amount of times until you reach the end of the zone, at which point you need to select the Move selection option.

Genshin Impact example of attack targeting

3. Move selection:

Instead of the “left/right” decision, the decision is to where exactly you would want to go. As with the targeting system, a selector would move around the map and pressing the button at a specific moment would move you to where the cursor is. This allows a much more precise movement, but takes a lot more time to decide. As an archer, you can select a space far away from the opponents:

Genshin Impact possible move selection

7) Conclusion

The possibilities are quite big to create different classes that offer an array of choices between quick decisions like the swordsman or more paced like the archer. Obviously, a lot of testing and balancing would be required to make all options equally viable and fun. Depending on the player, an option to modify the general speed of the game could also allow an experience challenging for any player.

I hope this gave you some ideas for a potential combat design adapted to an interface with a single input!

While reviewing this entry Brock Henderson really appreciated how this entry clearly laid out the parameters in the Definitions section. He had this to say about the design:

Brock from Numinous Games

The ergonomics considerations really show care for the audience. The wheel from the first entry might be a more cohesive shape than the timing bar, since the bar would require a jump from the end back to the beginning. I’m really glad that change character was included in the timing bar list because selecting the right elemental matchup in the game appears to be key. These action options feel pretty good. I still wonder if the movement options are really needed for a lot of the game. Perhaps the move options could be replaced with Dodge? It would make sense for the timing bar to scale through play. At the beginning of the game, you would have Basic Attack and Change Character and it would slowly build as you unlocked skills. The thought that went into considering the different needs and play styles of classes shows time and care was put into this entry. I would really like to see some of the AI implementations from the first entry included. The fighting is so fast in the current game and there are so many encounters that I think AI could go a long way to preserve the feel of the combat while still reducing input to meaningful choices.”

Hayden Scott-Baron added:

Image of Hayden from Numinous Games

This is an excellent example of focusing on the needs of the player. A lot of the existing gameplay in Genshin is focused on the player trying to balance just a few options, despite the otherwise complex controls.

“The class specific action bar is flexible enough to allow for new classes, but familiar enough to make each class comfortable for the most common actions.

“Getting the timing right for many of these actions will be difficult without changes made to the gameplay, which is something the design points out carefully and compensates for when possible.”

Our next entry was submitted by Jonah Monaghan, who told us, “This is my first time trying to make a one-button system; however, I want to do more one-button game jams in the future.” We were so excited to get his entry because we want The Playability Initiative to help spawn new ideas about accessible video games among the next generation of game designers. Here’s Jonah’s submission to the design challenge:

Genshin Impact – One-Button System

This is a submission for the December One-Button contest for The Playability Initiative.

Understanding the Current Genshin Impact System

Currently, the PS4 controls are as follows:

Genshin Impact Map of PS4 Controls

The key controls to look at for this are:

Triangle – Elemental Burst

Circle – Normal Attack

X – Jump

R2 – Elemental Skill

R1 – Sprint (used for dodging)

L2 – Switch aiming mode

D-Pad – Switch Party Member

This makes for a total of 10 buttons. Now to try and simplify it to a single button.

Normal Attack

The normal attack is the first input that needs to go. Having it as an auto-attack system is the best idea since combos are consistent. There is a heavy attack (hold attack) to apply knockback which I find is used most when enemies are used near a ledge, so the auto-attack system would automatically detect if a ledge is nearby.


This will also be automated since aerial combos aren’t a huge part of the game. If the player reaches an obstacle they can jump but not walk over the process will be done automatically. Similar to jumping in Ocarina of Time / Majora’s Mask.


Push twice in any direction on the joystick to toggle sprinting, once movement has stopped then the sprint will be turned off.

Character Switching

To switch, you press the button, the switch will go through the party rotation in order. This system will allow you to plan your party based on elemental effects and begin strategizing for an optimal rotation in combat. Since, elemental reactions are the most impactful element of combat it was important to set it as the primary button use.

Elemental Skill / Elemental Burst

To use an elemental skill (provided it’s charged) press the button twice. Elemental Bursts on the other hand will activate automatically provided they’re charged and the character is still active for a period of time after its charged (i.e. if you don’t want to use the skill immediately switch to a different character).

Bow Aiming and Control

Since stealth isn’t a key element of the game. I’ve decided to omit the bow aiming system. It is nice for stun locking enemies, however, it isn’t essential to combat. 

Final Notes

This is my first time trying to make a one-button system (however I want to do more one-button game jams in the future). I’ve set the document to accept comments so I would greatly appreciate any feedback people have.

Brock from Numinous Games

Brock Henderson pointed out that this entry does use a joystick in addition to a single button or switch. While some people with disabilities are able to use a joystick, this challenge is designed to think of the most demanding limitations, which means excluding the use of a joystick. Brock appreciated that this design really focused on the elemental reactions as they are the most important part of the combat system, and was impressed with the decision to use an auto-attack system. He added:

“I really like that this designer isn’t afraid to pare down nonessentials.”

Hayden Scott-Baron had similar feedback, saying:

Image of Hayden from Numinous Games

“Focusing on the existing controls makes sense for an adaptive accessibility technique (such as a controller adapter), but this design relies on plenty of new gameplay functions. There’s sadly no mention of choosing position, just a mention of sprinting that relies on a fairly tricky joystick input. 

“I really like the idea of character auto-attack the selected enemy, and initiating knockback when near ledges. The hardest part of this would be choosing which enemy to attack, and whether you would intentionally drive them towards ledges.”



Our final entry comes from Matthew Colon, who is our honorable mention two months in a row. This entry really impressed us and almost won the December contest. We were all quite taken with his elegant design.

From the video, I’m seeing a few things that can be abstracted out. On one hand, you have attacking and dodging/recovering. On another, you have different attacking and recovery strategies.

To simplify this for a one-button game, let’s drop ranged combat as a consideration for now and only focus on melee. Also, let’s remove player-controlled movement and assume the player will be automatically moved to each battle and their one-button selection can determine whether she is physically in an attacking or recovering position. For the core gameplay loop, the player will participate in a string of battles against enemies that are weak against certain auto-attacks she can do, and the player chooses to engage and select which auto-attack to perform or chooses to retreat and select to dodge or heal.

When the player is engaging an enemy, we show four auto-attack options, e.g. fire, ice, earth, and lightning for elemental attacks, and a retreat option. A cursor or selector remains on each option for a few seconds and when the player pushes the button on an attack option it starts auto-attacking using the selected attack, and the cursor or selector continues to move through the options in case the player wants to change her attack or retreat. While the player is auto-attacking, the enemy is attacking the player back at a certain cadence. If the enemy is weak against the player’s selected attack, the player will make short work of them. However, if the enemy is not weak against it the player will still damage it slightly but also be taking more damage herself over time.

If the player is taking too much damage, she can choose the retreat option when the cursor lands on it, which disengages with the enemy and moves her physically away from it. The enemy will switch to a ranged attack and continue to damage the player, though either at a lesser amount or a slower cadence. The player’s options change from the four attacks + retreat to three: heal, dodge, and reengage. Again, the cursor or selector remains on each option for a few seconds, and when the player pushes the button on heal they regain some HP, when she pushes on dodge she will avoid whatever attack the enemy is currently doing, and when she pushes reengage she will physically move back to melee range with the enemy. This retreat stage allows the player to have a little breathing room with two options that will help them mitigate and recover from damage, and then resume the battle when ready. Upon reengaging with the enemy, the original four attack + retreat options are shown once again.

If the player defeats the enemy, they are physically moved in the battlefield with their current HP to the next enemy, and the loop continues. The player wins if she mitigates her damage received successfully throughout the battles and defeats all of the enemies on the battlefield, but if an enemy defeats her either while she is engaged or recovering she loses.

While reviewing this entry, Brock Henderson said, 

Brock from Numinous Games

Although this entry does not go into as much detail as some of the other entries, it really solves the problem well. It automates the combat to maintain pace and remove fatigue while leaving the player with only meaningful choices.”

Hayden Scott-Baron added, 

Image of Hayden from Numinous Games

“Breaking the gameplay into larger discreet action and decision spaces helps the player focus on the most important use of resources rather than dwelling on the inputs. When people talk about the way they won a battle it often focuses on the smart use of elemental attacks and different characters.  Having a common language for the way that players react to the group of enemies would allow players to adapt to face new enemies with a core input set. This is a really smart design.”

We feel like our whole community learns from the entries we receive every month, and we can’t wait to see what January’s design challenge teaches all of us. Our January design challenge was posted on Friday, so make sure you’re a member of our Playability Initiative Facebook Group to participate.

Playability Initiative Year in Review – 2020

December 30, 2020 By Amy Green

Playabiliity Initaitive - Year in Review


It’s safe to say that no one will feel a sense of nostalgia as they say goodbye to this rough year that has brought everyone so many unexpected challenges. However, here at Numinous Games, we can’t ever be totally negative about 2020, because it’s the year that we launched the Playability Initiative and we’re so grateful for this opportunity to serve the disabled community as we learn and grow as developers. We wanted to take a moment and look back on the Playability Initiative year in review and highlight some of our favorite moments from this past year.

This spring, we learned that we would get to bring the Playability Initiative to life with the support of Novartis Gene Therapies. This had been a dream of ours for almost a year when we first learned about children within the SMA community. We had spent time prototyping games for them and thinking about how we could really serve the community well and let our work creating a game for the SMA community serve the broader disabled gaming community as well. We wanted to do more than make a game, we wanted to launch a movement that would inspire more accessible game design for years to come.

Image of Hayden from Numinous Games

“I loved reading all the blogs written on SMA News Today, and learning more about the ways that technology brings people together. There were so many innovative ways that people used apps, software and hardware. It was especially heart warming to see the community sharing their experiences and supporting one another.” – Hayden Scott-Baron


In the early summer, we built partnerships with AbleGamers, Games for Change and the Family Video Game Database. We firmly believe that we can all accomplish more together than we can separately. The AbleGamers Foundation has agreed to help us build an assessment level into Painted Waters so people who play the game will learn what other games they can play and what adaptive technology might suit them. We are sponsoring an accessibility modifier in this year’s student design challenge for Games for Change and they’re helping us design curriculum to prompt students to think more inclusively in their game design. Finally, we’ve sponsored the addition of new accessibility tags in the Family Video Game Database, so they can help everyone find the video games with the specific accessibility features they are looking for.

In July, we announced the Playability Initiative in a talk at Games for Change. Although, it’s possible that Ryan and Mike’s glorious beards pulled focus from the design practices we shared. We launched the Facebook group which has grown all year and now has more than 160 members. It’s a great place to ask all your accessibility questions and have conversations about design that considers the players. We feel like we learn so much from the incredible community surrounding us. 

Josh from Numinous Games

“I didn’t have a singular moment that was a highlight for 2020, but it was always the same type of moment: we’d try to create  something with sensitivity, and then share it with our community. But once we shared it,  we realized we had made some mistake, that there was something we didn’t consider. And from that, we’d grow and learn. All my favorite parts of working on this in 2020 were those moments of growth. And I can’t wait to see how we’ll grow going into 2021.” -Josh Larson


In August, we began meeting with Jack, an adult gamer with SMA. We commissioned him to begin writing articles for the Playability Initiative blog and he taught us a lot about what it’s like to play games that don’t consider your needs. And over the course of the next several months we learned a lot more about adaptive tech as we tried to find a racing game he could play.

Ryan of Numinous Games

“My highlight has been working with Jack and Al Freedman this year. I think my favorite moment was when we were finally able to get Mindball Play working so that Jack could play it.  We had many disappointing sessions for Jack where we just couldn’t figure out a solution and he was so patient with us, and gave us so much trust by letting us reach into his computer and change settings. Sometimes it was an issue with zoom, or a misconfiguration on our part in the eye gaze control software, or the computer freezing up and we had to reboot it.  We even resorted to Al calling into zoom on his phone and pointing his camera to the screen to make sure teleconferencing wasn’t interfering with the computer’s speed.  But in the end, when Jack loaded up the game, pressed play, and was able to race down the track using his eyes, the result was magical. What a time we live in!” -Ryan Green

Mike from Numinous Games

“My favorite moment this year was watching someone be able to play a new game that they had never before felt they could.  The joy, sense of accomplishment, and feeling of inclusion was staggering.  It’s been an honor to partner, talk to, and work with such amazing people.” – Mike Perrotto


In September, Ryan and Mike spoke at the Gaming Accessibility Conference, where we (virtually) met lots of like-minded people working together to solve hard accessibility problems in video games. 

Katie from Numinous Games

“My favourite moments (there are two) are both during Ryan and Mike’s video presentation at G4C2020 and GAConf2020. When the people watching began to react and comment about how wonderful the Playability Initiative is, that warmed my heart. It was awesome to continue to chat with those people after the talks finished, invite them to the Playability Initiative Facebook group and hear how happy they are that we’re doing this!” – Katie Postma


In October we began playtesting early demos of Painted Waters with Jack, and a few of our children. 

Amy from Numinous Games

“I loved watching our kids play demo levels of Painted Waters. They have access to a ton of games, so we never know if something we’re building will hold their attention. And while we learned a lot about things we’d need to change, it was so exciting to see that a game focused on accessibility had the potential to be a game that everyone could play and enjoy. It is important to us that Painted Waters is a game for everyone, so children with disabilities are getting to play the exact same game, the exact same way as their peers.” – Amy Green


In November we began our monthly design challenges to help foster more creative accessible design in games. We are convinced that as we all practice considering the player, our design improves. We’ve seen that in our own game development, and we love the way this monthly design challenge gives all of us that opportunity on a regular basis. We were blown away by the creative design solutions that were submitted to the monthly design challenge our first two months, and we can’t wait to see how much our community continues to learn from one another.

Brock from Numinous Games

“My year has been filled with positive things that slowly grow and compound on each other. I have a growing empathy and understanding of playing games with disabilities and some of challenges disabled gamers face. I have been amazed watching how a blind gamer can play Call of Duty. I have been stretched creatively to explore new methods of input and locomotion. And have spent a considerable amount of time trying to create a system to support various input configurations. Accessibility challenges on both sides of the equation are hard. It has been a year of steady climbing, but I haven’t been able to stop and look out because of the other commitments and life changes.” – Brock Henderson


In December we completed our first demo for Painted Waters and began mapping out what the rest of the game will entail for early access players next year. We even posted the first art featuring our in-game characters in a holiday greeting post.

Bridgette from Numinous Games

“My highlight for the year was working on the character designs for the small world we created. Working on characters with diverse abilities while considering representation was a new challenge for me. It was hard but rewarding to challenge my own biases. The chronic stress injury I developed last year, despite how minor it is compared to other disabilities, really opened my eyes on how quickly games designed to be fun exclude players with unique needs.” – Bridgette Powell


We are so thankful for our first year working on the Playability Initiative. We love the community that has rallied around us, and we can’t wait to see what 2021 brings! Happy New Year!

Accessibility Begins With People, Not Features

December 23, 2020 By Amy Green

We’re Learning that Accessibility begins and ends with people, not features…

Jack wanted to play a racing game. But all the ones he’d tried on his PC required elaborate controls. We couldn’t call ourselves the Playability Initiative while letting our collaborator, Jack, be disappointed with his ability to play, and do nothing about it. So we set out on a path to find a racing game Jack could play. And what we learned along the way is that gaming accessibility is never a “one size fits all” solution.

Jack plays video games with his eyes using a system called Eyegaze. He told us that he could only reliably play games that used mouse-only input. We began looking for mouse-controlled racing games.

Mindball Play Logo with colorful marbles

Our first attempts were rocky. Someone on Twitter suggested Mindball Play. We’d heard it had fast-paced racing-style mechanics. (Even if you were racing a steel marble around a track rather than a shiny red race car.) Most importantly, it was designed with eye gaze users in mind, so it should be an easy win. Jack was excited to try it. However, he told us, 

“It was hard for me to learn because I couldn’t move the cursor fast enough for me to keep up with the ball on my laptop. I got stuck with trying to navigate the ball with my eyes on the laptop.” 

Jack couldn’t play it. So, he and his dad returned the game to Steam. (We had just told them about Steam’s policy that allows players to return any game played for less than 2 hours. This policy meant they could try out games without the fear that they’d be out money if the game wasn’t accessible enough.)

Now we were puzzled. Why couldn’t Jack play this game that so many people had praised for being a really good eye-tracking video game? We started a conversation with the creators of Eyegaze. We didn’t want to reinvent the wheel. Maybe they already knew of some racing games Jack could play?

The creators of Eyegaze let us know that every user has a unique configuration set up that enables them to do the things they like to do most. Some systems are set up primarily for word processing, others are set up for gaming, some users even create special configurations for specific games. They let us know that Jack’s configuration was better suited for office work than playing games. Jack used a grid system on a secondary screen to move his mouse on a primary screen. Each micro-movement of the mouse required Jack to “click” (with his eyes) a section of the grid on the secondary monitor.

Jack's gaming setup as he plays the Painted Waters prototype. One monitor display his Eyegaze controls and the other monitor displays the game.

We realized that some of the problems that Jack had playing games had less to do with accessibility systems in the games themselves and more to do with his personal configuration setup on Eyegaze.

Jack’s dad, Al, explained to us that these systems are complicated and they can feel a little overwhelming to people who aren’t familiar with technology. Al surmised that most parents, like him, probably think to themselves, “If we change the settings, we might break something and not know how to change them back.” So, when an expert set up Jack’s system, Jack and his parents tried to leave it alone.

So even though software like Eyegaze is highly configurable, finding the right configuration for every type of activity on a computer is daunting. And for many people, making due with a less than ideal configuration is better than changing a setting and rendering their computer useless to them. Al also let us know that Jack is a creature of habit, trying to change his system could require relearning habits that have taken years to refine.

We realized that this was the perfect education for us. We couldn’t just make a game designed to be accessible and trust that everyone would be able to experience it. We had to consider each player, and make ourselves available to talk with them about their setups, one-on-one if necessary. So, “Help Jack play a racing game,” became our primary learning objective.

First, we had to ask Jack if he’d be willing to let us try changing some of the settings in his Eyegaze system and experiment with new ways of using his computer, if it meant he could try out different kinds of games. Jack loves games, so he was motivated.

In our conversations with Eyegaze we learned that the device running his eye tracking software was itself a Windows tablet capable of running games. 

So we tried running Mindball Play on his windows tablet. At first, this seemed to fail also, the game did not run very well on this tablet which also ran the Eyegaze control software. Eventually we realized that between the eye tracking technology, Zoom screen sharing, video conferencing, and trying to run the game all at once, we were bogging down the computer speed, and it couldn’t keep up. So we simplified. Instead of having Jack share his screen over Zoom, Jack’s dad Al, signed into Zoom on his phone, and pointed the camera at Jack’s screen.  Now we could see the game running smoothly and keep troubleshooting without bogging down the system.

Next, we focused on finding a way for Jack to control the mouse easily.  The default configuration for controlling the mouse was better suited for pointing and clicking. What we needed was a way to control the mouse pointer and *not* click.  This behavior would be essential for steering the marble in the direction he wanted it to go. 

Trying to find a configuration just right for a player is an exhausting and frustrating process.  Not only do things not always work, but we were constantly asking to take control of the computer away from Jack remotely. This is a very invasive process and it requires a great deal of trust from Jack. We knew that the stakes were high. If we made a change that we couldn’t fix, we would be cutting Jack off not only from his gaming pastime, but also his social and work life.

All the failed experimentation was frustrating and tiring to Jack.  And it wasn’t something we were able to solve in one session.  But thankfully, Jack was patient with our inexperience and after learning more about the existing Grid 3 software that was already on Jack’s machine, we discovered a setting that would allow Jack to switch between his default “point and click mode,” and our desired “move the cursor” mode we needed only while he was playing the game.

One of Jack's Grid3 Menus. We added two buttons in Jack's Grid3 setup: "Follow my Eyes" and "Stop Following".

We asked Jack about his experience with us changing the settings he typically uses to play games and here’s what he told us, 

“To play Mindball Play for the first time, I had to use Grid 3 on my Eyegaze to click or navigate my mouse. Now I have a new thing on my Eyegaze Grid 3 called Follow my Eyes for navigating or clicking with my Eyegaze. Following my Eyes helps me to navigate the ball more easily with my eyes.” 

He went on to tell us, 

“I was curious about how Follow my Eyes works. It took me some time to figure out the steps. It was easier for me because I can be more quick about following the ball in the game. I was glad I stuck with it.”

We loved watching Jack get to play a fast-paced game. And he, like most men in their twenties who enjoy playing video games, seemed to enjoy having an audience watching him play as he zipped around the course. Before this, he had stuck to mystery games which he could enjoy because they typically don’t rely on quick reaction times, although even these games occasionally had timer-based levels that presented problems. Fast-paced games had seemed out of reach for Jack, but after we helped him adjust his settings, he was cruising. 

“The stuff that I like the most about Mindball Play is that I’m able to move the ball down the path because I don’t keep falling off and the game is longer. I’m quick enough to navigate the ball with my eyes!”

Of course, no game is perfect, and Jack told us that if it were up to him, he “would try to adjust the speed of the ball to make it go slowly and not too fast.” But, even with that small criticism he could see himself recommending the game to others. 

“The player that I think would enjoy playing Mindball Play would be other Eyegaze users like my friend Amber from Vent Camp.”

We wanted to know if we had succeeded in our goal of helping Jack play a racing game. Did Mindball Play count as a racing game in his mind? He told us, 

“It does feel like a racing game to me.” But he also said, “There are other racing games that I would like them to make easier for playing by using the mouse and not the keyboard (Train Simulator and other car racing games).” 

So the push for more inclusive-thinking in game design marches on.

As we keep learning from Jack, we’re identifying new priorities for the Playability Initiative and our one-button game, Painted Waters. First, we want to make sure that we offer some fast-action areas of Painted Waters where kids can experience the thrill of speed with one-button controls that aren’t dependent on quick responses. And second, we want to prioritize one-on-one help for players who need guidance on adjusting their gaming setups. Accessible games aren’t enough, each player has unique personal needs that may have to be addressed. And that’s one reason we’re so excited about the work that AbleGamers does to analyze a player’s needs on an individual basis. We are honored to partner with them to help Painted Waters reach the widest audience possible.

November Design Challenge – Winner Announced!

November 30, 2020 By Amy Green

We are so excited about our monthly design challenges, because they give us all a chance to practice what we think is the core design principle in creating accessible games: consideration. This month, we asked participants to tell us how they would adjust the design of a popular game that’s been getting a lot of play around our houses lately, “Among Us.” We are excited to share with you the design solutions our participants came up with for changing “Among Us” into a game that could be played with a single button.

We were so impressed with the solutions that were offered, and we believe that we can all learn from the creative ideas that were shared with us. So, here’s the design suggestions that surfaced in the contest, and our Playability Initiative designers’ response.

Navigation and Player Movement

Blake Schreurs was the winner of this month’s challenge, and he began with ship navigation:

“For this game, navigating the space is a big deal, but navigating 2D spaces is something of a challenge with one button. In this case, I’ve implemented a predictive path algorithm: The user is focused on where they want to go, and the game will take them there. Each click will select a room after the room they’re going to.

Of course, the risk of getting stabbed is very real in this game, so back-tracking (if you see something that scares you) happens immediately.

The implementation code could use some polish, but this is to demonstrate a design, not be game-ready.

Oh, the color choice for the paths is on purpose: should still be distinct for those who are colorblind. Also, rooms with “chores” are a different shape (diamond) than intermediary nodes (hex). I was going to put in colored arrows “You’re going here”, but I found the “target room bubble” was extremely effective.

You’ll also notice that the game will select the next room for you when you reach a node. This is on purpose, as staying moving = staying alive, so I thought that was better than sitting still by default. You can sit still by going back to a previous node.”


Ryan Green had this to say about the navigation design:

“What I appreciate most about Blake’s design is that the immediacy of system response to player input is at the forefront of his thinking right from the get go. This is a game that requires users to be able to react. As Blake says, “moving = staying alive.”  His implementation of movement is very clever. Instead of selection occurring when the player is stopped at a point-of-interest, he uses the time between nodes to allow the player to anticipate their next move.  Allowing players to make decisions while they are moving frees the player from the tedium of movement, and gives them permission to think strategically.”

Player Customization

Next, Blake tackled cosmetic customizations in the game. Showing how much accessible game design requires a comprehensive approach, it’s not all about the mechanics.

“Do not underestimate the value of pets and clothes… These help give players individuality, or let them all participate in group activities (like all wearing party hats).

It is, in fact, so important, that cosmetics are one of the primary ways the game makes money… Personality matters, and we can’t overlook this. 

However, picking something from a large selection with one button is kinda awful. Given 1 second cycle time for choosing objects, and a reaction time of 0.5 seconds (and please forgive any math errors, it’s late)… With a fully linear format, choosing between 64 items can take anywhere between 0.5 (first item) and 63.5 seconds, with a mean time of 32.5 seconds. ICK! Oh, and if you MISS your item? Double ick.

With an X/Y input grid you have anywhere between 0.5 and 14.5 seconds, with a mean time of 8 seconds. Missing your selection depends entirely on implementation here, but may make you feel a little dead inside.

Hahaha! But wait! There is another way! A binary search!

With a binary hierarchical selection, a selection time is anywhere between 3 and 6.5 seconds, with a mean that’s really hard to calculate, but in the neighborhood of 5-ish seconds. Missing your selection means you go back up one step in the hierarchy.

It also doesn’t FEEL as long, because you’re invested in making intermediate steps along the way. You’re not waiting 6 seconds before you can act, there’s always an action just a moment away.

This demo uses very basic colors to show the concept. In a real-world design, we’ll want smooth animation, and to de-emphasize all non-selected items by greying them out, so the user can stay focused on the item they want.”

Ryan Green says, 

“Again, in menu selection situations, Blake rightly points out that cycling many options can be tedious, error prone, and take a very long time. The binary tree search is great because it narrows the decision space for the player down to two options. One additional accommodation I would have liked to have seen mapped out more clearly is either a “back,” “undo,” or a “confirm” option.  I like that Blake’s method reduces the cycling time for correcting mistakes, it is less clear to me how players would tell the system they do not want the current selection.”


Here are Blake’s thoughts on Accusing others and voting. 

“There are up to 8 players. I’ve given each a distinct shape, and a color using the Paul Tol palette (again, to support folks with color vision challenges). If I actually had the skills/resources to do actual character design, these would be the silhouettes / primary colors of those designs… As is, you’re stuck with ugly block art.

Choosing the player you want to defend/accuse is another hierarchical selection. I refined it some, so it doesn’t have quite that “rough concept” feel. Once you select a character to defend/blame, a linear slider is used to pick how confident you are of their innocence / guilt.

At the discussion round-up, the display would show how each player voted for each other.

The voting would work very similarly: One option for each other player, and a skip button.”

When Ryan Green reviewed the accusations, he said, 

“My only note here is that it seems to me the player would be selecting a player to accuse, so I might reverse the order of the slider to read back → Imposter → Sus → Crew. This would speed up the process of accusing someone by moving the most likely selection to the beginning of the scanning process.”

When Blake looked at the tasks and chores, he elegantly boiled down this aspect of the game as, “things to make you stay in place so someone can stab you.” (And I’m going to use this as justification for why I refuse to do any chores around my house from here on out.)

“In this case, these are essentially mini-games. They need to be short, since the player won’t be able to exit the mini-game prematurely (since the mini-game will essentially be taking over the input).

There are a broad variety that you can do. Flappy-bird. Geometry dash. Stop the spinner on a desired color. Hit trajectory. Alto-like games. Frogger-oids.

It’s pretty much the same with ship events: Core meltdown? Have a few folks navigate to the engine room and inject coolant.

The main exception would be the Emergency Meeting button, which would cycle between pressing or not pressing. Pressing it calls a meeting, not pressing returns the player to ship navigation.

This is pretty high level. For a full game design you’d want to go into more detail. That is to say: There is more design work that can be done here, but none of it is terribly novel.”

Ryan Green seemed particularly impressed with mini-game design, saying, 

“Blake’s suggestions for mini-games are perfect. The more simple controls in these examples don’t diminish the challenge of the minigame, but they do make them equally accessible to all player input types.”

Killing and reporting bodies.

“Again, this is all VERY rough, and would need to be cleaned up considerably for a proof-of-concept.

This is a snippet of showing reporting a body. I’ve moved the map to a mini-map, and have created a lighting environment more like Among Us. The player icon has changed to that of the last example. The opaque shadowing makes it feel more like you “stumble across” the body, as opposed to trying to navigate to it to report it.

Ultimately, it adds another timing element so that players can’t rest too easy between navigation nodes.

If you’re the imposter, and the other character is alive, then it would be a nearly identical interaction to kill them.”

Overall, Ryan Green was really inspired by this winning design submission, saying,  

“Blake really went above and beyond with his entry this month. I was thoroughly impressed! I have fallen into the design trap of emphasizing the less important elements of gameplay and losing sight of the point of the game. As Hayden likes to say “what does the player want to do, and what is preventing them from doing it?” Blake’s solution keeps that question in mind and maintains what makes Among Us fundamentally fun to play.”

When Playability Initiative Designer, Hayden Scott-Baron, helped us select Blake as the winner, he had this to say about Blake’s entry:

“My favourite part of Blake’s design is the consideration of player movement, which can be one of the trickiest things to adapt to single button. Focusing on pathfinding is an excellent approach that greatly limits the number of items being cycled at any one time, and keeps players moving around the ship. It also shows the ways that different maps can be more accommodating to different input methods, with junction and hub layouts vastly altering what it means to head into certain rooms or choose a new location.  It could be interesting to see location goals overlaid with behaviour goals, with the player deciding how much they want to follow other players and perform tasks. The ideas about interface and voting are excellent too, and show how each activity needs unique consideration. Great work!”

Our next one-button design challenge goes live at the end of this week, on Friday December 4th. To participate, make sure you’ve joined our Playability Initiative Facebook group, and then send us your designs in the comments of the challenge post. (Also, we fully recognize that Blake went above and beyond in his response to our challenge and we want to reassure everyone that we will consider entries based on the merit of their ideas and not based on the length of the submission.)

Accessible Game Spotlight: Lost and Hound

November 23, 2020 By Andy Robertson

Building a database that lets you search video games by accessibility features and inclusive design means we get to talk to developers of some amazing games! Many of these games are already available but some are still in development.

Lost and Hound

Rating: PEGI 7+, ESRB TEEN

Release Date: Coming soon

Platforms: Nintendo Switch and PC

Genres: Adventure, Narrative and Puzzle

Developer: @DaisyAleSounds

Lost and Hound is a game in development. We had a chance to talk to the developer and get the low down for the database. It’s an adventure puzzle game where you play as scent tracking rescue dogs, Corgi and Biscuit. You use your sense of smell to find missing items and solve mysteries. Your heightened hearing and other senses enable you to progress in your goals, eventually becoming a professional tracker.

In the game, your attuned hearing allows you to access information that’s inaccessible to humans. This means you can solve puzzles and find items. But it extends to detecting if someone is lying by being able to hear their heart rate increase. You can even hear through walls to track people and match up items such as those left at a crime scene with their owners.

The game depicts these senses in different ways. At any time, you can call up your sense of smell to find the direction to go. In this way, you travel the world taking on the role of real-world working dogs. You might work in a hospital assisting with seizure or cancer detection. Or you could find yourself being an emotional support for zoo animals and more. Your work as a K9 tracker will take you to the Australian outback, Swiss Alps, the American wilderness, and many other locales. In between each mission, you’ll have the option to complete mini levels to earn extra money and travel to more exotic locations.

The game is designed to be fully playable to players without sight or without hearing. It does this by matching audio cues with visual representation. This is also a mode where the display changes to increase the contrast and the depiction of the world to make it much more visible. Stamina is depicted on screen but also with the panting sound of your dog. Although there isn’t a difficulty setting, selecting particular companion dogs can make the game easier to play as they have helpful abilities. The sniff function is always present and tells you where to go next.

Beyond its novel play style, this game also offers a unique and light-touch way to engage with themes of criminal activity and the importance of other people to make us feel safe. Your owner is present throughout the game and depicts strongly the power of being cared for while being offered protection and reassurance.

A selection of games from the Family Video Games Database

It’s an exciting game that can teach us a lot about how a game about our senses could be designed to be inclusive even to players with impairments in the same senses the game highlights. We can’t wait to play it. You can use this search in the database to find more Upcoming Games with Accessibility Features.

When Games Hurt

November 18, 2020 By Amy Green

We can all recount the injuries we’ve suffered from playing some of our favorite games. Even non-athletes have fantastic injury stories to share from games like red rover, dodgeball, or even the annual cast party favorite for high school theater kids like me, “kissing rugby.” (Yes it was every bit as violent and flirtatious as it sounds.) When you agree to play these games, or any number of contact sports, you know pain is part of the rules of engagement. The risk involved increases the enjoyment of the activity. But what happens when games that should require no physical discomfort inadvertently inflict pain?

When we talk about accessibility in video games, we are often discussing the consideration that is required to design a game for someone with a disability. A designer has to consider the player and their unique abilities in order to create a game that is enjoyable for them to play. But discomfort while gaming can be experienced by any player. And this reminds us that good game design considers all players. 

Hands holding a game controller

Comfort in game playing is different for each person. What is comfortable for one player, may not be comfortable for another. If a video game causes you physical pain, it is not accessible to you. And so, accessibility impacts all players, not just players with diagnosed disabilities.

I remember when Plants Vs. Zombies 2 first came out and I binge-played it for two weeks before I noticed a sharp pain in my wrist and some mild numbness in a couple of my fingers. It took me a day or two to recognize that my excessive playing had given me temporary tendinitis in my wrist.

In my case, the solution was simple enough, I quit playing the game for a few days. When I returned to it, I spent less time playing than I had before. But what if the solution for player discomfort wasn’t simply “play less?” Surely the goal for the game’s developers wasn’t to encourage me and other players to play less. What if instead they had considered me more and thought through the ergonomics of gameplay before their game had been released? 

In this case, the game’s design was probably not to blame. It’s possible that any mobile game I played for such long stretches would have caused me similar discomfort. However, some games are poorly designed in ways that, unknowingly, inflict pain.

Hayden Scott-Baron, a designer on the Playability Initiative told us a similar story of playing a video game every night with his partner. They both really enjoyed the game and looked forward to their time spent playing it, until they came to a specific level that required such a difficult configuration of their fingers that it actually caused them physical pain. The game required the player to quickly switch between pressing buttons and holding the right stick in different directions. They quit playing the game. It didn’t matter how much they had enjoyed the game up to that point, when the game stopped considering their needs and began to inflict physical pain, nothing else mattered.

A couple sits and plays a video game together.

I suspect a lot more games expose players to physical pain than game designer’s realize, and this is even more true for players who have pre-existing injuries, special needs, or chronic conditions. Hayden didn’t write an email, or issue a help ticket, he just quit playing. I didn’t contact the developers, I just stopped spending as much time with their game.

Accessibility work isn’t just for games that are being designed for people with disabilities, all games should be accessible to players. When we don’t intentionally consider accessibility and think about the comfort of our players, we may inadvertently create games that aren’t accessible to anyone at all. 

Is Awareness A Dirty Word?

October 31, 2020 By Amy Green

Awareness fatigue. Even if you’ve never heard the term before, I suspect you’ve felt it. Awareness fatigue is a crummy feeling because we usually acknowledge that the cause the awareness is rallying toward is a great cause, but we’ve just heard about it so much we find ourselves bristling. Because the Playability Initiative wants to help raise awareness about the need for more accessibility in video games, it’s important for us to understand the factors that make us resist the call to help raise awareness. Awareness fatigue works against all of us. So, I’ll give you an example of my personal  awareness fatigue, if you promise to remember that I’m not proud of it.

October can grate on my nerves. Everywhere I look, I see pink ribbons, fundraising campaigns, waiters in pink t-shirts, even professional football teams get in on the breast cancer awareness action. And why would that bother me? Am I an unfeeling monster? No, of course not. It’s just that before October each year, I live through September, childhood cancer awareness month. What’s that? You’ve never heard of it? You’ve never seen gold ribbons plastered all over your town? Exactly. And that’s why I can get a little salty in October, when the importance of “awareness” goes from 0-60 literally overnight. (It doesn’t help that I lost a son to cancer and that childhood cancer research receives only 4% of the total government funding for cancer research.) And that’s one tricky thing about awareness; it can feel like every good cause is competing for attention. Even when we know it’s not a competition, we each have our own special causes that we want to see acknowledged, and while we don’t begrudge any good cause that needs more attention, it’s hard not to wish the things that mattered most to us were acknowledged as quickly as the big causes people universally support.

Pink Ribbons

We all bring our own circumstances into our awareness encounters. My lived experience explains my catty response when a woman checking me out at a cash register asked me if I wanted to round up my purchase to fund breast cancer awareness?  “Oh, you’re raising money to increase the awareness of breast cancer? What a great idea. It needs more awareness. Not enough people have heard of breast cancer. We need to spend more money to really help people become aware of this very under-acknowledged issue.”  Thankfully the girl at the register laughed a little rather than publicly shaming me for my bad attitude. It had been a long October. The truth is, had she told me I could round up my purchase to fund research, I probably would have agreed. And that’s another component of awareness fatigue; we may feel like it simply isn’t enough. Awareness is the first step in advocacy, fundraising, or demanding change. But we can camp on awareness for too long because it’s the easiest step, never moving on to the harder work of making life better.

So today, I talk about advocacy and awareness, knowing that it can be a bit of a dirty word. We’re all sick of people posting a few sentences on their social media pages and acting like they’ve saved the world. Every day is a national awareness day on some important issue or another. And we’ve all changed our profile pics to add a border that raises awareness about important topics, and wondered if it makes any difference or if we’re just broadcasting our “enlightenment” to our friends and family.

Does advocacy really matter? Is raising awareness valuable? Is it enough? Even though we may all have awareness fatigue, the answer is still yes. The reason October keeps flooding our lives with pink is because it works! Six billion dollars is raised for breast cancer every year. And that’s fantastic! It’s a worthy cause, and the money is helping save lives. We may all get a little tired of “awareness” as a concept. It may never feel like anyone is doing enough. But the next time you feel awareness fatigue creeping in, think of those pink ribbons in October and remember that awareness works. It is the crucial first step. Awareness leads to understanding, and understanding leads to change.

And this is especially true when it comes to less well-known topics, like accessibility in video games. I see so many of you talking about accessibility, and I’m sure you wonder if it makes any difference. The answer is yes. Large game studios are beginning to add more and more accessibility positions to their teams. In the last year, full-time accessibility management jobs were added at Xbox, Ubisoft, SquareEnix, Riot Games, Twitch and Unity. Accessibility is moving from something game devs did in their spare time to something that large studios are actively paying attention to and recruiting for because suddenly they care. Why do they care? Because their players care. Advocacy has grown. When players insist on accessible features, companies begin to pay attention. Awareness has been shifting into advocacy, and we’re seeing the first hints of change.

Various Adaptive Video Game Controllers

I’m sure you’re thinking, “Yes, awareness matters at the beginning, but what can my advocacy do at this stage in the game accessibility movement?” Most game developers already know what they need to do to make their games accessible, and they already know that they should be creating accessible games. But the sad truth is, there is a big gap between knowing what we should do and prioritizing that work under tight budgets and pressing deadlines.

A game designer for the Playability Initiative, Hayden Scott-Baron told us a story recently about a game he worked on. He had mapped out all the accessibility features for the game. The designs were ready to implement, but they were deprioritized before release. There was too much else to do. Here’s a perfect example of a game studio knowing they should include accessible features and knowing exactly how to accomplish it. The plan was to make the whole game playable using just a mouse, but additional modes were accessed via keyboard. Hayden designed an onscreen panel that let players change modes with the mouse, but the programmers weren’t able to implement every mode before launch. Players could still complete the game but couldn’t use every feature. A month later, a player emailed the studio saying they were enjoying the game but struggled with the controls.  That one advocate, reaching out accomplished in a single request what Hayden couldn’t do as a game designer inside the studio. The player created an immediate priority. The accessibility designs were implemented, and the game was updated.

I share this because you may think one voice won’t make a difference. Your awareness fatigue may have convinced you that you’re just being a nuisance and aren’t accomplishing anything. But remember, there are people inside all the game studios you love who care a great deal about accessibility. They are trying to make a case for a bigger portion of the time and money spent on developing a game to go toward accessibility. But they can’t make that case without the voice of advocates, regularly increasing awareness about specific games and specific needs.

Awareness is not a dirty word; awareness is a catalyst for change. And if you ever forget it, walk into any business any day in October, look around, and let the sea of pink remind how much impact awareness can have. Acknowledge your awareness fatigue, and then share the blog anyway. Tell your story anyway. Keep talking about accessibility anyway. It all matters. Awareness works, even when we’re tired of it.